Regional Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis Of The Lake Victoria Basin
The Regional Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (RTDA) covers the Lake Victoria Basin in the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. The analysis was conducted between June 2006 and March 2007 and was based on critical reviews of National Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses (NTDAs) carried out by the five East African Partner States between February and June 2006. In addition, the analysis was informed through various relevant works and documents, including literature and knowledge accumulated through the implementation of the 1st phase of the Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP I) and East African Community (EAC) policy and development documents, among others. To enhance ownership, consensus building and enrichment of the process, a series of consultative workshops were held across the region. The review process built upon, and mostly relied, on the respective National TDAs which focused was on a clear understanding of the causal-effect-chain analysis of the transboundary Major Perceived Problems and Issues (MPPIs). At the national level, a domesticated Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) and also Pair Wise Ranking methodological tools were applied to map out the MPPIs. In conformity with RTDA process, this report presents a comprehensive scientific analysis of transboundary water-related issues and proposes mitigation measures in respect to the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB). The transboundary major problems and issues identification and subsequent formulation of mitigation measures were aimed at enhancing the Basin’s ecosystem stability/health and environmental integrity. The RTDA, therefore, forms a foundation for the formulation of the second Phase of the Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP II) as well as the development of the Strategic Action Plan (SAP) for the Basin. The RTDA presents a case for targeted investments in the Basin given that the area supports approximately 35 million people and has considerable social, economic, environmental and ecological values. Its potential is based on rich social capital, rich agricultural soils, abundant water resources, minerals, fisheries, wetlands, diverse forest resources, wildlife and tourism opportunities. The Basin’s natural resources endowment forms the foundation of its socio-economy as well as the basis for the various threats and challenges being experienced. Increasing population without corresponding technological innovations and adoption and increasing reliance on natural resources has a series of manifestations. The key manifestations of the trends include widespread watershed degradation, increasing water pollution and declining lake levels, rising prevalence of water borne diseases, increasing conflicts over access and use of natural resources, declining fisheries, loss of aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity and, more frequent and severer droughts and floods. Major Transboundary Problems and Issues The transboundary water-related problems and issues that affect sustainable development in the lake Victoria Basin, as identified based on the three pillars – Economic, Social and Ecological, are presented and discussed under six thematic areas in this report. The thematic areas are: land use and land degradation; water quality and pollution; water quantity and water balance; fisheries decline and biodiversity; governance of environmental resources; and socioeconomic and cross cutting issues. The discussions focus on the major threats to the natural resource base, major causes, socioeconomic impacts and the proposed mitigation measures
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